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Mezigdomide with bortezomib or carfilzomib for RRMM

Oct 13, 2022
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Learning objective: After reading this article, learners will be able to cite a new clinical development in relapsed/refractory MM

Mezigdomide is an oral cereblon E3 ligase modulator (CELMoD) that induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells, creating a tumoricidal effect.1 The Multiple Myeloma Hub previously spoke to Paul Richardson about CELMoD; you can listen to the podcast here.

The first-in-human phase I dose escalation trial of mezigdomide, the CC-92480-MM-001 trial, showed promising preliminary results when mezigdomide was used in combination with dexamethasone, with an overall response rate of 55%.1 At the 19th International Myeloma Society Annual Meeting, Paul Richardson presented results from the CC-92480-MM-002 phase I/II dose escalation trial, where mezigdomide is evaluated in combination with dexamethasone and a proteasome inhibitor.1 We are pleased to provide a summary of this presentation here.

Study design

Phase I of the trial involved dose escalation, with patients receiving a 1 mg dose of mezigdomide in combination with two other drugs. Phase II of the trial involved dose expansion, using the results from phase I to determine the dosing regimen. In total, there were ten cohorts in this trial, evaluating mezigdomide with bortezomib, carfilzomib, daratumumab, elotuzumab, and isatuximab. The phase I results from Cohort A (mezigdomide with bortezomib and dexamethasone; Mezi-Vd) and Cohort C (mezigdomide with carfilzomib and dexamethasone; Mezi-Kd) and phase II results from Cohort D (Mezi-Vd) are shown in this article.

Dosing schedules for Cohorts A, C and D are shown in Figure 1. The primary endpoints of the trial were to determine a dose and regimen (phase I) and to evaluate the safety and overall response rate of the regimen.

Figure 1. Dosing schedule in Cohorts A, C, and D* 

*Adapted from Richardson.1
10 mg given if >75 years old.
On Cycle 1 Day 1, 20 mg/m2 was given.
§20 mg given if >75 years old.

Cycles could be continued past the number shown in Figure 1, with some with schedule adjustments. Adjustments were:

  • In Cohort A and Cohort D, for Cycle 9 onwards, bortezomib was given on Day 1 and Day 8 only, and dexamethasone was given on Day 1, 2, 8 and 9 only.
  • In Cohort C, for Cycle 13 onwards, carfilzomib was given on Day 1 and Day 15 only.

Results

Patient characteristics are shown in Table 1. A high proportion of patients were refractory to lenalidomide treatment. In general, Cohort D patients were less refractory and had received fewer lines of therapy compared to Cohort A and C. By protocol, patients in Cohort D had to be responsive to pomalidomide.

Table 1. Baseline patient characteristics*

Patient characteristic, % (unless otherwise stated)

Cohort A
(MeziVd)
(n = 28)

Cohort C
(MeziKd)
(n = 26)

Cohort D
(MeziVd)
(n = 38)

Median age (range), years

65.5 (4686)

68 (4176)

64 (4383)

Male

42.9

34.6

71.1

ECOG PS

 

 

 

              0

39.3

38.5

39.5

              1 or 2

60.7

61.5

60.5

ISS at study entry

 

 

 

              I

71.4

76.9

68.4

              II

21.4

11.5

21.1

              III

7.1

11.5

10.5

Extramedullary disease

17.9

3.8

7.9

High-risk cytogenetics

39.3

53.8§

34.2

Median prior therapies (range), n

3 (24)

2 (24)

1 (13)

Lenalidomide refractory

85.7

80.8

65.8

Anti-CD38 mAb refractory

50.0

73.1

36.8

Triple-class refractory

32.1

34.6

2.6

ECOG PS, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; ISS, International Staging System; mAb, monoclonal antibody; MeziKd, mezigdomide, carfilzomib, and dexamethasone; MeziVd, mezigdomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone.
*Adapted from Richardson.1
Defined by the presence of any abnormality for del(17p) and/or translocation t(4, 14), and/or translocation (t14, 16), and/or amplification 1q21.
11/28 patients non-evaluable.
§8/26 patients non-evaluable.
9/38 patients non-evaluable.
Defined as refractory to ≥1 immunomodulatory drug, 1 proteasome inhibitor, and 1 anti-CD38 mAb.

Safety

At the point of data cut-off (July 18, 2022), 53.6%, 42.3%, and 42.1% of patients had discontinued treatment in Cohort A, C, and D respectively. Discontinuation due to disease progression was 32.1% for Cohort A, 15.4% for Cohort C, and 26.3% for Cohort D. One patient died in Cohort C, which was due to sepsis and was not treatment related.

The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (any grade) were:

  • infections (53.6%), neutropenia (50%), anemia (39.3%), and diarrhea (39.3%) in Cohort A;
  • neutropenia (42.3%), infections (42.3%), and diarrhea (38.5%) in Cohort C; and
  • neutropenia (71.1%), infections (65.8%), thrombocytopenia (47.4%), anemia (39.5%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (39.5%) in Cohort D.

Discontinuation due to adverse events was 7.1% in Cohort A, 15.4% in Cohort C, and 13.2% in Cohort D. In total, 21.4%, 23.1%, and 36.8% of patients require a dose reduction of mezigdomide in Cohorts A, C, and D, respectively.

Efficacy

The median duration of response was:

  • 14.5 months in Cohort A;
  • 11.9 months in Cohort C; and
  • not reached in Cohort D.

Partial response rates were similar across Cohorts A, C, and D. Very good partial response and complete response was higher in Cohort D compared with the other two cohorts. The overall response rates for Cohorts A, C, and D are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Response rates across Cohorts A, C and D* 

CR, complete response; MeziKd, mezigdomide, carfilzomib, and dexamethasone; MeziVd, mezigdomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone; ORR, overall response rate; PR, partial response; sCR, stringent complete response; VGPR, very good partial response.
*Adapted from Richardson.1

Conclusion

In Cohorts A, C, and D, mezigdomide was well tolerated, with low levels of discontinuation due to adverse events. The overall response rate of 81.6% in Cohort D, with over 50% of patients achieving very good partial response or better, suggests higher doses mezigdomide in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone can be an effective treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. However, 36.8% of patients in Cohort D required a dose reduction, which highlights the need for further trials to determine the optimum mezigdomide dose and schedule, while maintaining high efficacy. The combination used in Cohort C (mezigdomide with carfilzomib and dexamethasone) is also being continued to phase II, although results are not yet available.

  1. Richardson P. Mezigdomide (MEZI; CC-92480) in combination with dexamethasone (DEX) and bortezomib (BORT) or carfilzomib (CFZ) in patients (pts) with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Oral abstract #053. 19th International Myeloma Society Annual Meeting; Aug 26, 2022; Los Angeles, US.